Vietnamese cuisine

Vietnamese cuisine encompasses the foods and beverages of Vietnam, and features a combination of five fundamental tastes (Vietnamese: ngũ vị) in the overall meal. Each Vietnamese dish has a distinctive flavor which reflects one or more of these elements. Common ingredients include fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruit and vegetables. Vietnamese recipes use lemongrass, ginger, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander, Saigon cinnamon, bird’s eye chili, lime, and Thai basil leaves. Traditional Vietnamese cooking is greatly admired for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of dairy and oil, complementary textures, and reliance on herbs and vegetables. With the balance between fresh herbs and meats and a selective use of spices to reach a fine taste, Vietnamese food is considered one of the healthiest cuisines worldwide.

As the people respect balance rules, Vietnamese cuisine always has the combination between fragrant, taste, and colour. Vietnamese cuisine always has five elements which are known for its balance in each of these features. Many Vietnamese dishes include five fundamental taste senses (ngũ vị): spicy (metal), sour (wood), bitter (fire), salty (water) and sweet (earth), corresponding to five organs (ngũ tạng): gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, and urinary bladder.

Vietnamese dishes also include five types of nutrients (ngũ chất): powder, water or liquid, mineral elements, protein and fat. Vietnamese cooks try to have five colours (ngũ sắc): white (metal), green (wood), yellow (earth), red (fire) and black (water) in their dishes.

Dishes in Vietnam appeal to gastronomes via the five senses (năm giác quan): food arrangement attracts eyes, sounds come from crisp ingredients, five spices are detected on the tongue, aromatic ingredients coming mainly from herbs stimulate the nose, and some meals, especially finger food, can be perceived by touching. Whether complex or simple, Vietnamese dishes also offer satisfying mouthfeel during the dining enjoyment.

The principle of yin and yang is applied in composing a meal in a way that provides a balance that is beneficial for the body. While contrasting texture and flavors are important, the principal primarily concerns the “heating” and “cooling” properties of ingredients. Certain dishes are served in their respective seasons to provide contrasts in temperature and spiciness of the food and environment. Some examples are:

  • Duck meat, considered “cool”, is served during the hot summer with ginger fish sauce, which is “warm”. Conversely, chicken, which is “warm”, and pork, which is “hot”, are eaten in the winter.
  • Seafoods ranging from “cool” to “cold” are suitable to use with ginger (“warm”).
  • Spicy foods (“hot”) are typically balanced with sourness, which is considered “cool”.
  • Balut (hột vịt lộn), meaning “upside-down egg” (“cold”), must be combined with Vietnamese mint (rau răm) (“hot”).

SALT is used as the connection between the worlds of the living and the dead. BÁNH PHU THÊ is used to remind new couples of perfection and harmony at their weddings. Food is often placed at the ancestral altar as an offering to the dead on special occasions (such as Lunar New Year). Cooking and eating play an extremely important role in Vietnamese culture. The word ĂN (eat) is included in a great number of proverbs and has a large range of semantic extensions.

The mainstream culinary traditions in all three regions of Vietnam share some fundamental features:

Freshness of food: Most meats are only briefly cooked. Vegetables are eaten fresh; if they are cooked, they are boiled or only briefly stir-fried.

Presence of herbs and vegetables: Herbs and vegetables are essential to many Vietnamese dishes and are often abundantly used.

Variety and harmony of textures: Crisp with soft, watery with crunchy, delicate with rough.

Broths or soup-based dishes are common in all three regions.

Presentation: The condiments accompanying Vietnamese meals are usually colorful and arranged in eye-pleasing manners.

While sharing some key features, Vietnamese culinary tradition differs from region to region.

In northern Vietnam, a colder climate limits the production and availability of spices. As a result, the foods there are often less spicy than those in other regions. Black pepper is used in place of chilis as the most popular ingredient to produce spicy flavors. In general, northern Vietnamese cuisine is not bold in any particular taste — sweet, salty, spicy, bitter, or sour. Most northern Vietnamese foods feature light and balanced flavors that result from subtle combinations of many different flavoring ingredients. The use of meats such as pork, beef, and chicken were relatively limited in the past. Freshwater fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, such as prawns, squids, shrimps, crabs, clams, and mussels, are widely used. Many notable dishes of northern Vietnam are crab-centered (e.g., BÚN RIÊU). Fish sauce, soy sauce, prawn sauce, and limes are among the main flavoring ingredients. Being the cradle of Vietnamese civilization,[citation needed] northern Vietnam produces many signature dishes of Vietnam, such as BÚN RIÊU and BÁNH CUỐN, which were carried to central and southern Vietnam through Vietnamese migration. Other famous Vietnamese dishes that originated from the North, particularly from Hanoi include “BÚN CHẢ” (rice noodle with grilled marinated pork), PHỞ GÀ (rice noodle with chicken), CHẢ CÁ LÃ VỌNG (rice noodle with grilled fish).

The abundance of spices produced by central Vietnam’s mountainous terrain makes this region’s cuisine notable for its spicy food, which sets it apart from the two other regions of Vietnam where foods are mostly not spicy. Once the capital of the last dynasty of Vietnam, Huế’s culinary tradition features highly decorative and colorful food, reflecting the influence of ancient Vietnamese royal cuisine. The region’s cuisine is also notable for its sophisticated meals consisting of many complex dishes served in small portions. Chili peppers and shrimp sauces are among the frequently used ingredients. Some Vietnamese signature dishes produced in central Vietnam are bún bò Huế and bánh khoái.

The warm weather and fertile soil of southern Vietnam create an ideal condition for growing a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and livestock. As a result, foods in southern Vietnam are often vibrant and flavorful, with liberal uses of garlic, shallots, and fresh herbs. Sugar is added to food more than in the other regions. The preference for sweetness in southern Vietnam can also be seen through the widespread use of coconut milk in southern Vietnamese cuisine. Vast shorelines make seafood a natural staple for people in this region.

Typical Vietnamese family meal:

  • Large bowl/pot/cooker of steamed long-grain white rice
  • Individual bowls of rice
  • Fish/seafood, meat, tofu (grilled, boiled, steamed, stewed or stir-fried with vegetables)
  • A stir-fry dish
  • Raw, pickled, steamed, or fresh vegetables
  • Canh (a clear broth with vegetables and often meat or seafood) or other soup
  • Prepared fish sauce for dipping, to which garlic, pepper, chili, ginger, or lime juice are sometimes added according to taste
  • Dipping sauces and condiments depending on the main dishes, such as pure fish sauce, ginger fish sauce, tamarind fish sauce, soy sauce, muối tiêu chanh (salt and pepper with lime juice) or muối ớt (salt and chili)
  • Small dish of relishes, such as salted eggplant, pickled white cabbage, pickled papaya, pickled garlic or pickled bean sprouts
  • Fresh fruits or desserts, such as chè

All dishes except individual bowls of rice are communal and are to be shared in the middle of the table. It is also customary for the younger to ask/wait for the elders to eat first and the women sit right next to the rice pot to serve rice for other people. They also pick up food for each other as an action of care.

Feast: A feast (Vietnamese: cỗ, tiệc) is a significant event for families or a villages, usually up to 12 people for each table. A feast is prepared for weddings, funerals, and festivals, including the wish-for-longevity ceremony. In a feast, ordinary foods are not served, but boiled rice is still used. The well-known feast is the feast of 49 quan họ villages with cỗ năm tầng.

A Vietnamese feast has two courses: main course (món mặn – savory dish) and dessert (món ngọt – sweet dish). All dishes, except for individual bowls of rice, are enjoyed collectively. All main course dishes are served simultaneously rather than one after another. The major dish of the main course is placed in the centers of the tables, usually big pots of soup or hot pot.

Attendants are arranged into several groups according to their social status, gender, age, degree of acquaintance, and eating habits and preferences. Customarily, female guests will bring some food and help the hosts to prepare the feast.

A basic feast (cỗ một tầng) consists of 10 dishes: five in bowls (năm bát): bóng, miến (cellophane noodles), măng (bamboo shoot), mọc (meatball), chim or gà tần (bird or chicken stew dishes) and five on plates (năm đĩa): giò (Vietnamese sausage), chả, gà or vịt luộc (boiled chicken or duck), nộm (Vietnamese salad) and xào (stir-fried dishes). This kind of feast is traditional and is organized only in northern Vietnam. Other variations are found in central and southern Vietnam.

Four dishes indispensable in the feast of Tết are giò, nem (spring roll), ninh (stew dishes) and mọc. At this time, the feast for offering ancestors includes sticky rice, boiled chicken, Vietnamese rice wine, and other preferred foods by ancestors in the past. Gifts are given before guests leave the feast.

COMMON INGREDIENTS in VIETNAMESE CUISINE as:

  1. Grains and their products:
  • Cơm (COOKED RICE, Fried rice: Cơm chiên, Steamed rice: cơm trắng)
  • Gạo (UNCOOKED RICE)
  • Cơm tấm (BROKEN RICE)
  • Nui (MACCARONI)
  • Bún gạo (RICE NOODLES)
  • Bún miến (Cellophane noodles)
  • Bún Tàu (GLASS NOODLES)
  • Bánh hỏi (Extremely thin rice noodles)
  • Bún tươi (Fresh RICE NOODLE)
  • Bánh Canh (Dry or Fresh thick RICE NOODLE)
  • Bánh phở (Flat RICE NOODLES, Dry or Fresh)
  • Bánh tráng (RICE PAPER)
  1. Veggies and roots:
  • Cà chua (TOMATO)
  • Cà rốt (CARROT)
  • Cà tím, cà pháo (EGGPLANT)
  • Dưa leo, dưa chuột (CUCUMBER)
  • Bông cải (CAULIFLOWER)
  • Cải xanh (MUSTARD GREENS)
  • Cải ngọt (CHOY SUM)
  • Cải thảo (CHINESE CABBAGE, WOMBOK)
  • Cải bẹ trắng (WHITE MUSTARD CABBAGE)
  • Bắp cải (nồi) (WHITE CABBAGE)
  • Su hào (TURNIP)
  • Su Su (CHAYOTE)
  • Mướp (SILK GOURD, ANGLED LUFFA, ASIAN OKRA)
  • Bầu (GOURD)
  • Bí đao (WINTER MELON)
  • Bí đỏ, Bí rợ (PUMPKIN)
  • Khổ qua (BITTER MELON)
  • Mồng tơi (CEYLON SPINACH)
  • Bó xôi (SPINACH)
  • Rau muống (WATER SPINACH)
  • Xà lách xoong (WATERCRESS)
  • Rau dền (dền) (VEGETABLE AMARATH)
  • Khoai tây (POTATO)
  • Khoai lang (SWEET POTATO)
  • Bắp chuối, Hoa chuối (BANANA BLOSSOM, BANANA FLOWER)
  • Đu Đủ xanh (GREEN PAPAYA, YOUNG PAPAYA, GREEN PAW PAW)
  • Khoai mỡ (YAM)
  • Khoai môn (TARO ROOT)
  • Khoai mì (CASSAVA, MANIOC, YUCA)
  • Đậu bắp (OKRA)
  • Tần ô, Cải cúc (CROWN DAISY)
  • Củ cải trắng (DAIKON, WHITE RADISH)
  • Củ sắn, Củ đậu (JICAMA)
  • Rau ngót, Rau chùm ngót, Rau chùm ngọt (KATUK)
  • Hoa thiên lí (TONKIN JASMINE)
  • Fruits in Vietnam:
  • Chôm chôm (RAMBUTAN)
  • Xa pô chê, Hồng xiêm (SAPODILLA)
  • Trái cóc (SPONDIAS CYTHEREA)
  • Mãng cầu chua, Mãng cầu xiêm, Mãng cầu gai (SOURSOP)
  • Khế (STAR FRUIT)
  • Mãng cầu ta, Na (SWEETSOP)
  • Mận, Roi (WATER APPLE)
  • Dưa hấu (WATERMELON)
  • Nhãn (LONGAN)
  • Trái vải (LYCHEE)
  • Xoài (Northern Vietnam), sài (Southern Vietnam):  MANGO
  • Măng cụt (MANGOSTEEN)
  • Đu đủ (PAPAYA, PAW PAW)
  • Hồng (PERSIMMON)
  • Thanh long (PITAYA, DRAGON FRUIT)
  • Bưởi (POMELO)
  • Cam sành (KING ORANGE)
  • Sơ ri (ACEROLA)
  • Dừa (COCONUT)
  • Dứa, Thơm, Khóm (PINEAPPLE)
  • Ổi (GUAVA)
  • Mít (JACKFRUIT)
  • Bòn bon (LANGSAT)
  • Vú sữa (MILKFRUIT, STAR APPLE)
  • Me (TAMARIND)
  • Sầu riêng (DURIAN)

VIETNAMESE DISHES:

Despite being a small country in Southeast Asia, the foods from each region in Vietnam carry their distinctive and unique characteristics that reflect the geographical and living conditions of the people there. The traditional southern Vietnamese meal is made up of fresh ingredients that only the fertile Mekong Delta could provide, such as CÁ LÓC (SNAKE HEAD FISH), and a wide range of tropical fruit like MANGOSTEEN, MANGO, and DRAGON FRUIT. The southern style diet is very ‘green’, with vegetables, fish and tropical fruits as the main ingredients. Central Vietnam is the region in which food is prepared with the strongest, boldest flavors. This region is constantly under harsh weather conditions all throughout the year, so people there do not have as many green ingredients as others do in the north and south of Vietnam. Instead, the coastline around the central Vietnam area is known for its salt and fish sauce industries; these two condiments are central to their daily diets. Northern Vietnamese cuisine has a strong Chinese influence, and its iconic dish is phở. While rice is a staple in the southern Vietnamese diet, the north has a preference for noodles. Due to the drastic differences in climate and lifestyles throughout the three main regions of Vietnam, the foods vary. Northern Vietnamese cooking is the least bold in flavor compared to the foods from central and southern Vietnam. List of typical dishes as below:

  1. Noodle soups:
  • Bánh Canh (BANH CANH): is a Thick rice noodle soup with a simple broth, often includes PORK or CRAB, … and spring onions and fresh onions, fried shallots sprinkled on top. (Banh canh cua, Bánh canh giò heo, Bánh canh tôm, Bánh canh Trảng Bàng, …)
  • Bánh tằm ca ri (BANH TAM CA RI): Spicy chicken curry over special rice noodles (Cà Mau Province)
  • Bún bò Huế (BUN BO HUE): Spicy beef noodle soup originated from the royal city of Huế in Central Vietnam. Beef bones, fermented shrimp paste, lemongrass, and dried chilies give the broth its distinctive flavors. Often served with mint leaves, laksa leaves, bean sprouts, and lime wedges. Pig’s feet are also common ingredients at some restaurants. (Thừa Thiên–Huế Province)
  • Bún măng vịt (BUN MANG VIT): Bamboo shoots and duck noodle soup.
  • Hủ tiếu (HU TIEU): A noodle soup with many varied styles, including a ‘dry’ (not soup but with sauce) version, it was brought to Vietnam by way of Chinese (Teochew) immigrants. The noodles are usually egg noodles or rice noodles, but many other types may be used. The soup base is made of pork bones.
  • Bún riêu (BUN RIEU): A noodle soup made of thin rice noodles, topped with crab and shrimp paste, served in a tomato-based broth and garnished with bean sprouts, prawn paste, herb leaves, tamarind/lime, tofu, water spinach, and chunks of tomato.
  • Mì vịt tiềm (MI VIT TIEM): Yellow noodle soup with roasted DUCK and CHOY SUM.
  • Cao lầu (CAO LAU): signature noodle dish from Hội An consisting of yellow wheat flour noodles in a small amount of broth, with various meats and herbs.
  • Mì Quảng (MI QUANG): signature noodle dish from Quảng Nam (A province of middle of Vietnam), yellow wheat flour noodles in a small amount of broth, with various meats and herbs.
  • Bún thang (BUN THANG): soup made with shredded chicken meat, shredded fried egg, shredded steam pork cake, and various vegetables.
  • Bún mắm (BUN MAM): vermicelli noodle soup with a heavy shrimp paste broth.
  • Bún mộc (BUN MOC):
  • Hủ tiếu Bò Kho (HU TIEU BO KHO): Beef stew with carrots, usually served with toasted bread or rice noodles
  • Bún ốc (BUN OC): noodles with snails
  • Phở (PHO): Noodle soup served with various cuts of beef (Called PHO BO), chicken (called PHO GA) or fish (Called PHO CA) and onions. Often eaten with basil, mint, lime, and bean sprouts.
  • Hủ tiếu Nam Vang (HU TIEU NAM VANG)
  1. Wok-fied/Stir-fried / mixed noodles:
  1. Dumplings:
  • Bánh Bá Trạng (BANH BA TRANG): Bak Chang dumplings – like Chinese zongzi
  • Bánh bao (BANH BAO): Ball-shaped bun filled with pork and/or other ingredients (Steamed or deep-fried)
  • Bánh bột lọc (BANH BOT LOC): Wrapper made of tapioca starch packed with shrimp.
  • Bánh bột lọc trần: BANH BOT LOC TRAN): Dumplings with wrappers made of tapioca starch; similar to chaozhou fun guo.
  • Bánh bột lọc lá (BANH BOT LOC LA): Tiny rice flour dumplings stuffed with shrimp and ground pork and wrapped in a banana leaf; from Huế.
  • Bánh cam (BANH CAM): Deep-fried glutinous rice sesame balls filled with sweetened mung bean paste; from southern Vietnam
  • Bánh ít (BANH IT): Small stuffed glutinous rice flour balls, wrapped in banana leaf, and steamed. Stuffing can be sweet (mung bean, grated coconut, …) or savory (mung bean).
  • Bánh ít trần (BANH IT TRAN): Steamed stuffed glutinous rice flour, with savory stuffing, serve with NƯỚC CHẤM.
  • Bánh khúc (BANH KHUC): Glutinous rice ball
  • Bánh nậm (BANH NAM): Flat rice flour dumpling from Huế stuffed with minced pork and mushroom, and seasoned with pepper and spices; wrapped in a banana leaf. (Thừa Thiên–Huế Province).
  • Bánh phu thê (BANH PHU THE): Literally “husband and wife cake”; a sweet cake made of rice or tapioca flour and gelatin, filled with mung bean paste; also spelled bánh xu xê (su sê). (Bắc Ninh Province)
  • Bánh phu thê bột bán (BANH PHU THE BOT BAN): Husband and wife cakes made with tapioca pearls
  • Bánh rán (BANH RAN): Deep-fried glutinous rice sesame balls filled with sweetened mung bean paste; from northern Vietnam
  • Bánh tẻ (BANH TE): Small steamed rice cake wrapped with leaves of some local trees into a long, thin cylindrical shape, and boiled thoroughly. (From HANOI)
  1. Pancakes and Sandwiches:
  • Bánh bèo (BANH BEO): Small steamed savory rice cakes (Quảng Bình province)
  • Bánh căn (BANH CAN): A southern specialty consisting of small pancakes made with quail eggs, cooked in small clay pans
  • Bánh đúc (BANH DUC): Rice cake or corn cake eaten as a dessert or savory meal
  • Bánh khọt (BANH KHOT): A southern specialty consisting of small, fried rice flour pancakes. (Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province)
  • Bánh mì thịt (BANH MI THIT): Vietnamese sandwich or Roasted pork roll.
  • Bánh xèo (BANH XEO): Savory pancake or crepe with stuffing as shrimps, pork, sliced onion, mung bean, beansprouts, … and NƯỚC CHẤM.
  1. Rolls and Rice papers:
  • Bánh cuốn (BANH CUON): (From HANOI): Steamed rice flour roll, with stuffing: minced pork, wood-ear mushroom, fried shallot, …
  • Bánh Tôm (BANH TOM)
  • Bánh tôm HỒ TÂY (BANH TOM HO TAY): A shrimp patty specialty originating from the area around West Lake (Tây Hồ), Hanoi
  • Bánh tráng (BANH TRANG): rice paper (Central Vietnam, Binh Dinh)
  • Bánh ướt (BANH UOT): Steamed rice paper (Khánh hòa Province)
  • Chả giò (CHA GIO – South of Vietnam) or Nem rán (NEM RAN – North of Vietnam): Fried spring rolls (SAIGON)
  • Gỏi cuốn (GOI CUON): Salald rolls
  • Bò bía (BO BIA): Salad roll with cooked stuffing (like Popiah in Malaysian cuisine): Chinese sausage, carrot, jicama, … and dipping fermented bean paste.
  • Bánh tráng phơi sương (BANH TRANG PHOI SUONG): Wetted rice paper (Tây Ninh Province)
  • Chạo tôm (CHAO TOM): Prawn paste on sugar cane, serve with BÁNH HỎI and vietnamese fresh herbs, NUOC CHAM
  1. Soups and congees:
  • Canh chua: Sour soup (with Fish, crab or prawn and vegetable, Vietnamese herbs)
  • Canh ngót
  • Canh khổ qua dồn thịt
  • Canh cua đồng rau đay
  • Canh dưa hường nấu tôm
  • Canh cải chua sườn heo non
  • Canh rau củ thập cẩm sườn heo
  • Canh mướp
  • Cháo gà
  • Cháo tôm
  • Cháo hàu
  • Cháo vịt
  • Cháo lòng
  • Cháo cá
  1. Rice dishes:
  • Cơm chiên:
  • Cơm gà
  • Cơm tấm
  • Cơm hến
  • Xôi vò
  • Xôi mặn
  • Xôi cúc
  • Xôi đậu (Đậu đen, đậu xanh or đậu phộng)
  1. Cakes and desserts:
  • Bánh bò (BANH BO): Made from glutinous rice flour and coconut milk, with a honeycomb-like texture.
  • Bánh cáy (BANH CAY): Rectangular-shaped sweet dessert made by roasting and grinding glutinous rice and other ingredients (Thai Binh Province)
  • Bánh da lợn (BANH DA LON): Colored steamed layer cake made from tapioca starch, rice flour, coconut milk and/or water, sugar, and other ingredients
  • Bánh chuối nướng/hoặc hấp (BANH CHUOI): Banana cake (baked or steamed)
  • Bánh flan (BANH FLAN): Vietnamese version of CREAM CARAMEL
  • Bánh kẹp lá dứa (BANH KEP LA DUA): Pandan and coconut flavored waffle eaten plain
  • Bánh khoai mì (BANH KHOAI MI): Cassava cake
  • Bánh bía (BANH PIA): From Sóc Trăng Province, Cake is flavoured with DURIAN
  • Bánh trung thu (BANH TRUNG THU): Moon cake with varieties of stuffing (Nuts, beans, lotus seed paste, or mix)
  • Chè (CHE): Sweet soup
  • Chè trôi nước (CHE TROI NUOC): Sweet dumpling soup, made with glutinous rice flour and mung bean paste stuffing (Southern Vietnam)
  • Chè bánh lọt (CHE BANH LOT): Coconut milk, a worm-like jelly made from rice flour with green food coloring (usually derived from the pandan leaf), shaved ice and palm sugar
  • Chuối chiên (CHUOI CHIEN): Banana fritter
  • Kẹo dừa (KEO DUA): Coconut candy (Bến Tre Province)
  • Cơm rượu (COM RUOU): Dessert from Southern Vietnam, made from glutinous rice, fermented by special yeast.
  • Tàu hủ (TAU HU): Sweet dish with soft bean curd in ginger sugar cane syrup
  • Sương sáo/Thạch đen (SUONG SAO): Made by boiling the aged and slightly oxidized stalks and leaves of Mesona chinensis (member of the mint family) with potassium carbonate for several hours with a little starch and then cooling the liquid to a jelly-like consistency
  • Mè xửng (ME XUNG): A chewy candy originally from the city of Huế, made with boiled down cane sugar, (into a soft and thick solid), coated with sesame seeds, and usually containing peanuts.
  • Bánh trôi (BANH TROI): Boiled Glutinous rice balls – also called bánh chay; literally “floating cake”) – served together with bánh chay (Northern Vietnam)
  • Chè chuối (CHE CHUOI): Made from bananas and tapioca
  • Bánh khoai môn (BANH KHOAI MON): taro cake
  • Sương sa/Thạch rau câu (SUONG SA):
  • Sâm bổ lượng (SAM BO LUONG)
  1. Sausages:
  • Chả lụa (CHA LUA):
  • Chả quế (CHA QUE):
  • Chả chiên (CHA CHIEN)
  • Chả cá (CHA CA)
  • Dồi xã (DOI XA)
  • Dồi huyết (DOI HUYET)
  • Dăm bông (DAM BONG)
  • Giò thủ (GIO THU)
  • Nem (NEM)
  1. Salads:
  • Gỏi ngó sen tôm thịt (GOI NGO SEN): Lotus stems salad with prawn and pork
  • Gỏi sứa (GOI SUA): Jelly fish salad
  • Gỏi gà xé phay (GOI GA): Shredded chicken and cabbage salad
  • Gỏi vịt (GOI VIT): Shredded duck and cabbage salad
  • Gỏi bưởi (GOI BUOI): Pomelo salad with prawn
  • Goi bò bóp thấu (BO BOP THAU):
  • Gỏi cá (GOI CA)
  • Gỏi khô bò (GOI KHO BO): Young papaya salad, with dried beef, dressing and herbs (Street foods in SAIGON)
  • Gỏi bồn bồn (GOI BON BON)
  • Gỏi xoài (GOI XOAI)
  • Gỏi củ hủ dừa (GOI CU HU DUA)
  • Gỏi cóc chua cay (GOI COC)
  • Gỏi rau nhút hải sản (GOI RAU NHUT)
  • Gỏi ba khía (GOI BA KHIA)
  1. FISH and SEAFOOD dishes:
  • Nghêu hấp sả (NGHEU HAP SA): Steamed clams with lemongrass
  • Cua rang muối (CUA RANG MUOI)
  • Tôm rang muối (TOM RANG MUOI)
  • Ốc len xào dừa (OC LEN XAO DUA)
  • Sò điệp/vòm/hàu/sò huyết nướng mở hành
  • Sò huyết rang muối
  • Ốc mỡ xào me (OC MO XAO ME)
  • Cá kho tộ (CA KHO TO)
  • Cá kèo kho tiêu (CA KEO KHO TIEU)
  • Cá thu sốt cà (CA THU SOT CA)
  • Mực xào hành cần (MUC XAO HANH CAN)
  • Tôm rang muối sả (TOM RANG MUOI SA)
  1. POULTRY and GAME ANIMALS dishes:
  • Gà xào sả ớt (GA XAO SA OT): Lemongrass chicken
  • Gà kho gừng (GA KHO GUNG)
  • Gà nướng lu (GA NUONG LU):
  • Cà ri gà (CARI GA): Vietnamese chicken curry
  • Gà nướng chao (GA NUONG CHAO)
  • Vịt tiềm (VIT TIEM)
  • Vịt nấu cari (CARI VIT): Duck curry
  • Chân gà hấp hành (CHAN GA HAP HANH): Steamed chicken feets with scallions
  • Cánh gà chiên nước mắm (CANH GA CHIEN NUOC MAM): Caramelized chicken wings with fish sauce
  • Lagu gà (LAGU GA): Vietnamese chicken ragout
  • Gà rô ti (GA RO TI)
  • Gà hấp muối (GA HAP MUOI)
  • Gà hấp lá chanh (GA HAP LA CHANH)
  • Gà xào hạt điều (GA XAO HAT DIEU)
  • Vịt xào sa ớt (VIT XAO SA OT)
  • Vịt nướng chao (VIT NUONG CHAO)
  • Vịt nấu củ ấu (VIT NAU CU AU)
  1. Meat dishes:
  • Bò xào sả ớt (BO XAO SA OT)
  • Thịt kho trứng (THIT KHO TRUNG): Stewed pork with eggs in fish sauce
  • Thịt kho tiêu (THIT KHO TIEU): Pork in Caramelized fish sauce with cracked black peppercorn
  • Bò xào hành cần (BO XAO HANH CAN): Wok-fried beef with onion, tomato and celery
  • Thịt kho cải chua (THIT KHO CAI CHUA)
  1. VEGETABLE and VEGETARIAN dishes:
  • Rau muống xào tỏi: Wok-fried WATER SPINACH with garlic
  • Khổ qua xào trứng: Sauteed BITTER GOURD with eggs
  • Rau xào thập cẩm: Stir-fried mixed veggies
  1. Others:
  • Bánh Tét (BANH TET): Log-shaped cylindrical glutinous rice cake, wrapped in a banana leaf and filled with a meat or vegetarian filling (Southern Vietnam)
  • Bánh Chưng (BANH CHUNG):
  • Bánh Thuẩn (BANH THUAN):
  • Bánh dừa (BANH DUA):
  • Bánh qui (BANH QUI)
  • Bánh thục linh (BANH THUC LINH)
  • Bánh tai mèo (BANH TAI MEO)
  • Bánh tay cùi (BANH TAY CUI)
  • Bánh hạnh nhân (BANH HANH NHAN)
  • Bánh tiêu (BANH TIEU): Hollow doughnuts
  1. Hot pot:
  • Lẩu bò (LAU BO): Beef hot pot
  • Lẩu dê (LAU DE): Goat hot pot
  • Lẩu vịt nấu chao (LAU VIT): Duck hot pot
  • Lẩu cá kèo (LAU CA KEO)
  • Lẩu khổ qua (LAU KHO QUA)
  1. Beverages:
  • Bia hơi (BIA HOI)
  • Vietnamese beers
  • Rượu Vang Đà Lạt: Local wine from DALAT city
  • Rượu đế
  • Rượu cần
  • Rượu thuốc (Rượu thuốc, rượu rắn, rượu tắc kè, Rượu ngọc dương. …)
  • Chanh muối (CHANH MUOI)
  • Đá chanh (DA CHANH)
  • Cà phê: See VIETNAMESE COFFEE
  • Nước mía (NUOC MIA): Sugar cane juice
  • Nước sâm
  • Nước rau má
  • Sữa đậu nành
  • Sữa đậu xanh
  • Trà (Southern Vietnam) or Chè (Northern Vietnam): Tea

View more information about Vietnamese cuisine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_cuisine 

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